However, this complexity pays off, because it lets us simplify many day-to-day features. This post will try a different angle by comparing where Java wants to be and where Scala is right now. I hope after reading it you will at least question your assumptions whether this trade-off is worth it.
Upon its creation, Java was a fairly simple language. A major reason it took over C++ is because it was specifically designed to steer away from multiple inheritance, automatic memory management and pointer arithmetic. But it's not a simple language anymore, and it's getting more and more complicated.
Why? Java wasn't designed to be too extensible. Scala, on the other hand, was designed to be scalable, in the sense of flexible syntax. The very creators of Java knew very well that a "main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth" (Guy Steele's famous words from Growing a Language)
We need to expand our definition of language complexity. The language needs to be able to abstract away accidental complexity, or using it will be difficult. Examples of accidental complexity: jumping to a position in your program with goto, and then remembering to go back (before procedural programming); or allocating memory, and then remembering to deallocate it (before garbage collectors). Another example: using a counter to access collections, and remembering to initialize and increment it correctly, not to mention checking when we're done.
Creating extensions of the language in order to hide these complexities doesn't happen often. When it does, it offers huge rewards. On the other hand, if a language is rigid, even though it looks simple, this forces you to invent your own arcane workarounds. When the language leaves you to deal with complexity on your own, the resulting code will necessarily be complicated.
Let's see what special new language features Java tries to add to the language, which Scala can do because of its flexibility and extensibility.
Pattern matching is often compared with Java's switch/case statement. I have listed pattern matching as something which doesn't have an analog in Java, because comparing it to "switch" really doesn't do it justice. Pattern matching can be used for arbitrary types, it can be used to assign variables and check preconditions; the compiler will check if the match is exhaustive and if the types make sense. Meanwhile Java has only recently accepted Strings in switch statements, which is only scratching the surface of Scala's pattern matching.
Furthermore, Scala is using pattern matching all through the language- from variable assignment to exception handling. To compare, the proposal for handling multiple exceptions in Java is postponed yet again.
In order to get rid of Java's verbose getters, setters, hashCode and equals, one solution is to muck with the javac compiler, like the folks from Project Lombok have done. Is going to the guts of javac complicated? I'm sure it is.
In Scala, you can do it if you just define your classes as case classes.
In short, implicit conversions help transparently convert one type to another if the original type doesn't support the operations requested.
There are many examples where this is useful.
What in Java is hardcoded in the language as conversions and promotions, in Scala is defined using implicit conversions. This is another example where Java can get quite complicated. In most cases where you need to decide how to convert a method argument, for instance, you must have in mind narrowing and widening conversions, promotions, autoboxing, varargs and overriding (whew!). In Scala, the advantage of having implicit conversions is that you can inspect the code, where no ambiguity can result. You can analyze the conversions taking place in the interpreter by supplying the "-Xprint:typer" parameter. You can even disable these implicits, if you don't like them, by shadowing the import.
Another example of what implicits can do is adding methods and functionality to existing classes. Dynamic languages already do that easily using open classes and "missing method" handlers. In Java one way to do this using bytecode manipulation trickery via libraries like cglib, bcel, asm or javassist.
Bytecode manipulation in Java is required for popular libraries like Hibernate, Spring and AspectJ. Few "enterprise" Java developers can imagine development without Hibernate and Spring. Although there are many more things you can do with AspectJ, it can be used to emulate implicits with type member declarations. However, even though using AspectJ is a more high-level way to solve the problem, it adds even more complexity, as it defines additional keywords and constructs.
If you're new to Scala, you don't lose much if you don't know how implicit conversions work, just like you don't need to know about the magic that happens behind the scenes when Hibernate persists objects or when Spring creates its proxies. Just as with bytecode generation, you're not advised to use this feature often, as it is difficult to use. Still, you'll be glad it exists, because someone will create a library which will make your life and the life of many developers so much easier.
The line between operators and methods in Scala is blurred- you can use the symbols +, -, /, *, etc. as method names. In fact, that's exactly how arithmetic operators work in Scala- they are method invocations (relax, everything is optimized by the compiler).
Some people object that operator overloading adds unnecessary complexity, because they can be abused. Still, you can also abuse method naming in much the same way. For instance, some hapless folk can define methods with visually similar symbols, like method1, methodl and methodI. They can use inconsistent capitalization, like addJar or addJAR. One could use meaningless identifiers like ahgsl. Why should operator best practices be different than method naming best practices?
What is complicated is treating numeric types like ints and BigInteger differently. Not only that, but operations with BigInteger are very verbose and barely readable even with simple expressions. To compare, this is how a recursive definition of factorial looks like in Scala with BigInteger:
def factorial (x: BigInt): BigInt =
if (x == 0) 1 else x * factorial(x - 1)
This is how it would look if Scala didn't support operator overloading:
def factorial (x: BigInteger): BigInteger =
if (x == BigInteger.ZERO)
Call by name
One of the proposals for Java 7 language extension was automatic resource management. This is one more rule to the language, which you need to remember. Without this feature, code is also unnecessarily complicated, because it forces you to remember to always close resources after using them- if you slip up, subtle bugs with leaking files or connections can result.
In Scala, it's easy to add language constructs like this. Using function blocks, which are evaluated only when they are invoked, one can emulate almost any language construct, including while, if, etc..
Existential types are roughly an alternative to Java wildcards, only more powerful.
Martin Odersky: If Java had reified types and no raw types or wildcards, I don't think we would have that much use for existential types and I doubt they would be in Scala.
If Martin Odersky says that existential types wouldn't be in the language if it wasn't for Java compatibility, why would you even need to know about them? Mostly if you need to interoperate with Java generics.
Scala tries to define fewer language rules, which are however more universal. Many of these advanced features are not often used, but they pay off by allowing to create constructs, which in Java would require specific hardcoded additions to the language. In Scala, they can be defined simply as libraries.
Why does it matter that it's in the libraries, and not hardcoded in the language? You can more easily evolve and adapt these features, you can add your own extensions, and you can even disable some of the library parts or replace them.
The conclusion is that if a language is not designed to be extended, it will eventually develop features, which are not well-integrated and this language will collapse under the weight of its own complexity.
Finally, learning something so that you avoid a lot of routine error-prone operations reduces effort by increasing the level of abstraction, at the cost of additional complexity. When you were in school, it was complicated to learn multiplication, but if you got over it, it would save you from quite a bit of repetition than if you just used addition.
P.S. I realize it's not possible to resolve the issue once and for all which language is more complicated- Java or Scala- in a post or two. First of all, have in mind that simple is not the same as easy to use. There are also many topics which are open for discussion. I haven't touched on Scala traits; I haven't mentioned functions as first-class constructs compared to the Java 7 closure proposal; and there's a lot that can be said about how Scala obviates many Java design patterns. Extending the Scala syntax via compiler plugins is another interesting advanced topic.
I suppose someone could even write a blog post about these topics some day.